Italian Journal of Pediatrics volume 44, Article number: 123 (2018)
Andrea Borgo, Andrea Cossio, Denise Gallone, Francesca Vittoria & Marco Carbone
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of diseases characterized by abnormal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Although there are differences among the various disease types, the osteoarticular system is always involved. The aim of the present study was to establish a framework for MPS-related orthopaedic manifestations and for their treatment. The authors, affiliated to three different Italian Orthopaedic Centres, report data taken from the literature reviewed in light of their accumulated professional experience. Bone alterations make up what is known as dysostosis multiplex, involving the trunk and limbs and with typical radiological findings. Joints are affected by pathological tissue infiltrations. The cervical spinal cord is involved, with stenosis and cervical and occipitocervical instability. In MPS there is a much higher incidence of scoliosis compared with healthy subjects without any particular distinctive feature. Kyphosis of the spine is more frequent and also more severe because of its possible neurological complications, and it is localized at the thoracolumbar level with a malformed vertebra at the top of the deformity.