Diagnostics 2019, 9, 187; doi:10.3390/diagnostics9040187

Danielle de Araujo Torres, Anneliese Lopes Barth, Mariana Pires de Mello Valente, Paulo Pires de Mello and Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism with an aggressive and usually fatal course. Therefore, early treatment is essential because the involvement of head and neck structures is almost always present in MPS. Our study aimed to retrospectively assess—via a chart review and a survey of caregivers—the history of ear, nose and throat (ENT) symptoms, the number of otolaryngology visits prior to diagnosis, and whether otolaryngologists diagnosed the disease in a cohort of MPS patients followed at an academic medical centre. Twenty-three patients were evaluated. Age at diagnosis ranged from 0.2 to 33.0 years (median, 3.2 years). Prior to being diagnosed with MPS, 20/23 (87%) patients presented with at least one episode of otalgia, airway disorder, sleep disturbance, speech delay or suspected hearing loss. One patient had an adenotonsillectomy with paracentesis of tympanic membranes. Ten of the 23 patients (43%) were seen by an otolaryngologist before the diagnosis of MPS, none of which had the disease suspected during these visits. Notwithstanding limitations, our results suggest that increased awareness of MPS among otolaryngologists may allow for earlier diagnosis and better management of these patients.

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