Diagnostics 2019, 9, 148; doi:10.3390/diagnostics9040148

Hsiang-Yu Lin, Chung-Lin Lee, Pao Chin Chiu, Dau-Ming Niu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shio Jean Lin, Ju-Li Lin, Tung-Ming Chang, Chih-Kuang Chuang, and Shuan-Pei Lin

Children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) generally appear unaffected at birth but may develop multiple clinical manifestations including profound growth impairment as they grow older. Each type of MPS has a variable age at onset and variable rate of progression, however, information regarding growth in Asian children is limited. Methods: This retrospective analysis included 129 Taiwanese patients with MPS (age range, 0.7 to 19.5 years, median age, 7.9 years) from eight medical centres in Taiwan from January 1996 through December 2018. Results: The mean z scores for the first recorded values of height, weight, and body mass index in the patients’ medical records were −4.25, −1.04, and 0.41 for MPS I (n = 9), −2.31, 0.19, and 0.84 for MPS II (n = 49), −0.42, 0.08, and −0.12 for MPS III (n = 27), −6.02, −2.04, and 0.12 for MPS IVA (n = 30), and −4.46, −1.52, and 0.19 for MPS VI (n = 14), respectively. MPS IVA had the lowest mean z scores for both height and weight among all types of MPS, followed by MPS VI, MPS I, MPS II, and MPS III, which showed the mildest growth retardation. Both z scores for height and weight were negatively correlated with increasing age for all types of MPS (p < 0.01). Of 32 patients younger than 5 years of age, 16 (50%), and 23 (72%) had positive z scores of height and weight, respectively. A substantial number of younger patients with MPS I, II, III, and IVA had a positive height z score. The median age at diagnosis was 3.9 years (n = 115). Conclusions: The patients with MPS IVA had the most significant growth retardation among all types of MPS, followed by MPS VI, MPS I, MPS II, and MPS III. The height and weight of the MPS patients younger than 2–5 years of age were higher than those of healthy individuals, however, their growth significantly decelerated in subsequent years. Understanding the growth curve and potential involved in each type of MPS may allow for early diagnosis and timely management of the disease, which may improve the quality of life.

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